Periods and Movements

A movement is a style or technique followed by a group of artists who share common goals and beliefs. Movements are confined to a specific period of time, anywhere from a few months to several years, and can be visual, architectural, or literary.

A period is a distinct phase within a movement, it can also be a marked phase in the work of a single artist such as Pablo Picasso's Blue Period.

Research visual art from major periods and movements below, includes links to library and museum exhibitions where representative works can be viewed.

Art Deco
Art Nouveau
Folk & Outsider
Lowbrow / Pop Surrealism
Magic Realism
Symbolism & Surrealism

See also: Master Artists

Guggenheim Collection: Movements
View objects in the museum's collection arranged by movement, each image includes a detailed description and each movement includes an introduction and links to representative artists.

WebMuseum, Paris: Glossary
Detailed articles and definitions of movements and terms.

Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History
View materials researched, written, and presented by curators at The Metropolitan Museum. Includes over 6,000 items from prehistory to the present day with related information such as maps, timelines, and essays.

LACMA: European Paintings: Historical Styles
Images from the collection of European paintings showing the principal styles and artistic movements from the Middle Ages to the twentieth century.

Wikipedia: Movements
Includes an overview of movements with lists to more specific information on each movement dating from the 1500s to the present day.

Wikipedia: Periods
Outlines periods in the Western world from the Renaissance to the present day.
About using Wikipedia as an Academic Resource

NGA: Dada
A Dada resource from the National Gallery in Washington, DC, includes an introduction to the origins of Dada and its spread across Europe and to America, plus images, biographies, and techniques of important artists.

Art Deco

Virtual Museum Canada
A small collection of around 17 objects with brief information for each.

V & A: Art Deco
Includes an object database with a guide to buildings in London, and other resources from the Victoria & Albert Museum.

NYPL: Ornament and Pattern: Pre-Victorian to Art Deco
An online collection of thousands of images from the New York Public Library Digital Gallery.

Wikipedia: Art Deco
Includes history, modern applications, and further reading plus a large selection of images featuring buildings, furniture, sculptures, paintings, and other objects.

An Art Deco architecture resource with a large collection of photographs and other resources online.

Art Nouveau

Anatomy of an Exhibition - Art Nouveau, 1890-1914
Feature offers a glimpse behind the scenes during the planning and construction of the exhibition Art Nouveau,1890-1914 at the National Gallery of Art.

Teaching Art Nouveau
An educational resource from that includes a short history, a glossary, images and activities.

European Art Nouveau and American Art Nouveau
Introductions with object images from The Minneapolis Institute of Arts.

Art Nouveau
A thematic essay with with around 24 object images from The Metropolitan Museum, New York.

Art Nouveau: A Study Room Resource
A resource from the Victoria and Albert Museum, includes a selection of graphic works with artist information.

Publishers' Bindings Online
An introduction to the movement with links to artists and exhibits, as well as an online database of images.

Art Nouveau World Wide
Information about select artists and examples of architecture, glasswork, ceramics, and drawing.

Article includes origins, characteristics, philosophy, a gallery of images, and a list of noted practitioners.


Guggenheim Collection: Cubism
Large image collection with an introduction to cubism and biographical information for each artist.

The Cubist Paintings of Diego Rivera
An online presentation that includes a collection of images and a summary of his life.

Cubist Image Bank
Biographical information on several important cubist painters with artworks listed chronologically.

Heilbrunn Timeline: Cubism
Thematic essay, includes selected works with information for each, as well as related essays, terms, and timelines.

WebMuseum, Paris: Cubism
An article with brief information on Picasso, and Juan Gris, includes several images.

Collection of works from the National Galleries of Scotland, includes Georges Braque, Max Ernst, Lyonel Feininger, and many others.

WorldImages: California State University Image Project
  Cubist & Futurist Painting
  Cubist & Futurist Sculpture

A brief article on the development of Picasso with selected images.


LACMA: Collections Online
The Robert Gore Rifkind Center of German Expressionism at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art.

MoMA: Artists of Brucke
An online exhibition of German Expressionist prints and illustrated books.

WebMuseum, Paris
  Expressionism: Timeline
  Austrian Expressionism: Egon Leo Adolf Schiele

  Collections Online: Expressionism

20th Century Painting: German Expressionism
A collection of works by Wassily Kandinsky, Franz Marc, and Ernst Ludwig Kirchner.

WorldImages: California State University Image Project
  Expressionist Painting
  Expressionist Sculpture


Monet, Claude Renoir, Pierre-Auguste

Guide to Impressionism
An online guide from the The National Gallery, London.

Guggenheim Collection Online
Includes selected paintings and sculpture from the permanent collection plus detailed information about the Impressionists and their work.

19th Century Painting: Impressionism & Post-Impressionism
A collection of works by Claude Monet, Pierre Auguste Renoir, Vincent van Gogh, and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec.

American Impressionism
An online exhibition featuring American works by Mary Cassatt, James McNeill Whistler, Childe Hassam, and others.

NGA: American Impressionism and Realism
Collectors, Margaret and Raymond Horowitz, share their private collection of American Impressionist paintings, an online tour from the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.

WorldImages Database
View over 600 impressionist paintings online in the California State University Image Project.

The Fitzwilliam Museum
View highlights online from the French Impressionist painting and drawing collection.

MFA Boston: European Impressionism and American Impressionism
Explore European and American Impressionism in these online tours from the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Pop Art

Dine, Jim
Haring, Keith
Johns, Jasper
Lichtenstein, Roy
Warhol, Andy

Guggenheim Collection
American and British pop images from the 1950s with descriptions and artist information.

Warhol Museum
With a permanent collection of over 12,000 objects created by Andy Warhol, this is the most comprehensive single-artist museum in the world.

WebMuseum: Pop
An article and representative artist, David Hockney, includes a selection of images.

WorldImages Database
View close to 300 pop images online from the California State University Image Project.


Anderson, Sophie Waterhouse, John William

The Metropolitan Museum of Art
An exploration of The Pre-Raphaelites from the Met.

National Liverpool Museums
Take a closer look at the collections of Pre-Raphaelite paintings at the Walker and Lady Lever Galleries.

Birmingham Museums: Pre-Raphaelite Resource
An online collection of over 3,000 fine and decorative objects including oil paintings, watercolors, tapestries, stained glass, ceramics, and related materials.

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
A 19th Century English Pre-Raphaelite gallery.

Victorian Web
An Introduction to Pre-Raphaelitism by Professor George P. Landow, Brown University.

An online image gallery with a small selection of paintings by artists including Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Sir John Everett Millais, William Holman Hunt, and others.

The Pre-Raphaelites
A page with images, information and links.

Wikipedia: Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
An article that includes the beginnings of the Brotherhood, later developments and influence, a list of artists, and a large collection of images.

Magic Realism

Ten Dreams
An introduction to the history of Magic Realism with image galleries.

Wikipedia: Magic Realism
Includes the history and definition of magic realism in literature and visual art.

Michael Parkes
Official site with paintings, sculpture, posters, and gallery links.


Metropolitan Museum: Heilbrunn Timeline
  Nineteenth-Century French Realism

Guggenheim Collections: Nouveau Realisme
Includes images of works by Yves Klein plus detailed information about the new realism movement.

WorldImages Database
View over 800 paintings online from the California State University Image Project.

Wikipedia: Realism
An introduction to realism with a list of important artists and a selection of images.

Dutch Realism
A Rijksmuseum resource.

Contemporary Spanish Realism
View a small selection of paintings presented by Oglethorpe University Museum Online Gallery, includes works by Bernardo P. Torrens, Dino Valls and others.

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